Native American dogs

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Canadian Eskimo Dog.

Native American dogs, or Pre-Columbian dogs, were dogs living with people indigenous to the Americas. Arriving about 10,000 years ago, they are now almost completely extinct except for a small handful of breeds such as Alaskan Malamutes, and Greenland Dogs.[1]

Contents

  • 1 Origins
  • 2 Historical purposes
  • 3 Breeds and landraces
  • 4 Modern times
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Origins[edit]

The earliest evidence for dogs in the Americas can be found in Danger Cave, Utah, a site which has been dated to between 9,000 and 10,000 years BC. These New World dogs have been shown to descend from Old World Eurasian grey wolves.[2]

In 2018, a study compared sequences of North American dog fossils with Siberian dog fossils and modern dogs. The nearest relative to the North American fossils was a 9,000 BC fossil discovered on Zhokhov Island, Arctic north-eastern Siberia, which was connected to the mainland at that time. The study inferred from mDNA that all of the North American dogs shared a common ancestor dated 14,600 BC, and this ancestor had diverged along with the ancestor of the Zhokhov dog from their common ancestor 15,600 BC. The timing of the Koster dogs shows that dogs entered North America from Siberia 4,500 years after humans did, were isolated for the next 9,000 years, and after contact with Europeans these no longer exist because they were replaced by Eurasian dogs.

The pre-contact dogs exhibit a unique genetic signature that is now gone, with DNA from the cell nucleus indicating that their nearest genetic relatives today are the Arctic breed dogs – Alaskan Malamutes, Greenland Dogs, Alaskan Huskies and Siberian Huskies.[1]

It is theorized that there were four separate introductions of the dog over the past nine thousand years,[1] in which five different lineages were founded in the Americas.[3]

The dogs of the Native Americans were described as looking and sounding like wolves.[4] The Hare Indian dog is suspected by one author of being a domesticated coyote, based on its historical description.[5] At Arroyo Hondo Pueblo in northern New Mexico during the 14th century C.E., several coyotes seem to have been treated identically to domestic dogs.[6]

One of the most ancient dog breeds of the Americas, the Xoloitzcuintli (or ‘xolo’ for short), accompanied the earliest migrants from Asia and had developed into the breed seen today in Mexico by at least 3,500 years ago.[7]

In South America, the introduction of the dog took place somewhere between 7,500 and 4,500 BC.[8][9] Findings for dogs in South America get only denser by 3,500 YBC but seem to be restricted to agricultural areas in the Andes.[8][9] The oldest finding of a dog for Brazil is dated as 1701 and 1526 cal BC,[8] and for the Pampas of Argentina the oldest is dated as 930 BC.[9] In Perú, depictions of Peruvian hairless dogs appear around A.D. 750 on Moche ceramic vessels and continue in later Andean ceramic traditions.[10][page needed][better source needed]

Historical purposes[edit]

Culinary

.mw-parser-output .hatnote{font-style:italic}.mw-parser-output div.hatnote{padding-left:1.6em;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .hatnote i{font-style:normal}.mw-parser-output .hatnote+link+.hatnote{margin-top:-0.5em}See also: Dog meat

Some of the cultures that ate dogs were:

  • Dakota[11]
  • Mexica[12]
  • Huanca[13]

Hunting

The Tahltan Bear Dog was bred to hunt larger game [14]

Herding

In the Andes region of South America, some cultures like the Chiribaya and Inca used herding dogs, such as the Chiribaya Dog.

Lap dogs and companions

Mexica nobility of Mexico occasionally kept tlalchichi, the direct ancestor of the modern Chihuahua breed, as pets.[15] Some well-preserved and intact dog mummies and other burials with grave goods, such as blankets and food, have been interpreted as pertaining dogs that were considered to have had familial status. At the Inca site of Machu Picchu, dogs with no evidence that would indicate sacrifice have been found in mortuary contexts with and near individuals of apparent high status.[16]

Pulling

Some tribes utilized dogs for pulling travois. They pulled game, tipi, and other items for their masters.

Religious Significance

In South America, several different cultures sacrificed dogs in religious ceremonies. At the site of Pachacamac in Peru, a popular place of pilgrimage and religious ritual best-known for the presence of an oracle, archaeologists uncovered the burials of over a hundred dogs with physical signs of sacrifice. Dogs were sometimes considered to be psychopomps, guides to the afterlife, and were often buried with elite. The Peruvian hairless dog was believed to have supernatural abilities, such as the ability to see spirits, and were seen as a particularly good psychopomps. In Inca times, the dog was also heavily associated with the Moon and was sacrificed during lunar eclipses in order to bring the Moon back.[16]

Osages had a clan that shaved their children’s heads in three tails, each to symbolize a canid: dog, coyote, and a wolf.[17]

Breeds and landraces[edit]

.mw-parser-output .tmulti .multiimageinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle .thumbcaption{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow>.thumbcaption{text-align:center}}Top to bottom: Xoloitzcuintle, Carolina, and Canadian Eskimo dogs.

North America:

  • Hare Indian dog
  • Salish Wool Dog[18]
  • Tahltan Bear Dog[19]
  • Tlalchichi
  • Xoloitzcuintli
  • Calupoh[20]
  • Greenland Dog
  • Canadian Eskimo Dog[21]
  • Carolina Dog
  • Alaskan Malamute

South America:

  • Chiribaya Dog
  • Peruvian Hairless Dog
  • Fuegian dog

Breeds falsely advertised as Native American-originated:

  • American Eskimo Dog[22]
  • Chinook[23]
  • Northern Inuit Dog[24]

Modern times[edit]

Today, most Native American dog breeds have gone extinct, mostly replaced by dogs of European descent.[1] The few breeds that have been identified as Native American, such as the Inuit Sled Dog, the Eskimo Dog, the Greenland Dog and the Carolina Dog have remained mostly genetically unchanged since contact in the 15th century.[25]

Modern free-ranging dogs differ in origin from North to South America. In North America, the Carolina dog has mtDNA links to East Asian dogs, with a shared haplotype with the Shiba Inu in Japan. This suggests that it migrated to North America through Beringia, therefore making it a Native American dog. In South America, on the other hand, free-ranging dogs are almost entirely of European descent.[25]

In 2018, a study compared sequences of fossil North American dogs with fossil Siberian dogs and modern dogs. The study indicates that dogs entered North America from Siberia 4,500 years after humans did, were isolated for 9,000 years, and after contact with Europeans these no longer exist because they were replaced with Eurasian dogs. The pre-contact dogs exhibit a unique genetic signature that is also now gone, with their nearest living relatives being canine transmissible venereal tumor and the modern Arctic breed dogs originally introduced by the Inuit.[1]

See also[edit]

  • Dogs in Mesoamerica
  • Dusicyon avus, which is not a dog but probably a tamed canid.
  • Rez dog
  • Landrace

References[edit]

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  • ^ a b c d e .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg&#8221😉right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg&#8221😉right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg&#8221😉right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg&#8221😉right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Perri, Angela R; Irving-Pease, Evan K; Witt, Kelsey E; Linderholm, Anna; Haile, James; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Ameen, Carly; Blick, Jeffrey; Boyko, Adam R; Brace, Selina; Cortes, Yahaira Nunes; Crockford, Susan J; Devault, Alison; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Eldridge, Morley; Enk, Jacob; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Gori, Kevin; Grimes, Vaughan; Guiry, Eric; Hansen, Anders J; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Johnson, John; Kitchen, Andrew; Kasparov, Aleksei K; Kwon, Young-Mi; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Lope, Carlos Peraza; et al. (2018). “The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas” (PDF). Science. 361 (6397): 8185. Bibcode:2018Sci…361…81N. doi:10.1126/science.aao4776. PMC 7116273. PMID 29976825.
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  • ^ Dogs: Domestication and the Development of a Social Bond by Darcy F. Morey page 40
  • ^ “Was the Hare Indian dog a domesticated coyote? | Natural History”. Retrieverman.net. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  • ^ Monagle, Victoria; Conrad, Cyler; Jones, Emily Lena (2018-09-18). “What Makes a Dog? Stable Isotope Analysis and Human-canid Relationships at Arroyo Hondo Pueblo”. Open Quaternary. 4: 6. doi:10.5334/oq.43. ISSN 2055-298X.
  • ^ “This Hairless Mexican Dog Has a Storied, Ancient Past”. National Geographic News. 2017-11-22. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
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  • ^ “Hernan Cortés: from Second Letter to Charles V, 1520”. Fordham University. Retrieved August 14, 2018. There are also sold rabbits, hares, deer, and little dogs [i.e., the chihuahua], which are raised for eating
  • ^ Wylde, Michael (2017). The Inca Dogs and Their Ancestors. Ann Arbor, Michigan.
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  • External links[edit]

    • Canidae.com


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